Thursday, March 12, 2020
Refugee Mother and Child Essay Example Refugee Mother and Child Paper Refugee Mother and Child Paper The poem Refugee Mother and Child is the representation of the universal theme, of mother and child and an example of the true and advanced works of Chinua Achebe. Chinua Achebe was born in the 1930s, an African novelist and poet, who wrote the poem Refugee Mother and Child after visiting people in countries at war. He was inspired, and brilliantly illustrates the difficulties and suffering of the people through the eyes of a mother. The title is short and direct. It tells you exactly what the poem is about- the portrayal of the relationship between a mother and her child in a refugee camp. The poem is organised into two stanzas each of different lengths. The lines are not long, explained clearly with simple meanings. The poet adopts the blank style of writing. The main theme of the poem is Mother and child. This is a worldwide theme, and with Chinuas control of language, he is able to depict the horrors of wars, the painful suffering and brings the realities and after-effects of war to a very personal level, through the eyes of a mother. It is an eternal theme for any war that takes place. The poem begins with a reference to Madonna and child. The poet compares the image of the ideal mother and child to the mother and child in the poem and explains to readers, that nothing ever seen before, not even the perfect image of a mother and child can compare to the affection and care between the mother and son in the poem. These lines, will tell you that, her son is dying, and she would have to forget him. These opening lines grab complete attention of the reader. Chinua then moves on from the mother and child to the standards of livings at a refugee camp. He lucidly describes the war scene and the lives of the people living at the refugee site. He explains to us the stench of diarrhoea that was throughout the camp, with children that are victims of malnutrition and starvation. The poet uses harsh words, such as washed out ribs, dried up bottoms and blown empty bellies. to explain the severity of the situation. The circumstances, illustrate the brutality and cruelty of war and explains the lack of basic essential necessities, and hence the lack of survival. The situation is a simple effigy of the reality of life in countries at war. A feeling of hopelessness pervades the air, as the mothers in the camp have given up faith. The situation is full of despair and despondency. However, there is hope witnessed in one mother who does not let go of her faith. Note how, there is an emphasis on but not this one as if to distinguish that mother from the others, and how she had not lost trust. Although her child is dying, she comforts both him, and herself. The rust coloured hair left is another situation that illustrates the under nourishment of the child and the lack of food. The word skull is foreboding, and explains that doom is around the corner. Note the use of ellipses that force the reader to think of the attachment and emotional bond between mother and child. The combing of hair is the last gesture. It is a ritual, and is a simple act taken for granted in our everyday lives. It is the very last loving touch of the mother. Due to the ailment of the child, the mother provides her child, with the only simple pleasure she can offer him; she combs his hair. This intensifies the readers empathy and compassion for the mother. The simplicity of this act brings to life the enormity of the painful conditions. The poet uses simple graphic words and vivid images, creating a visual image that the reader can sense and feel. The words are skilfully woven to illustrate the misery and dejection in the refugee camp using imagery. The poet uses a metaphor ghost smile and compares the smile to a ghost,. She may have been emaciated herself as she was proud to have her son, but is in dismay, as she could not protect him from the harshness of the world. The poem ends with a painful simile now she did it like putting flowers on a tiny grave. This demonstrates the attachment between the mother and child, and how the last gesture of combing her childs hair, was like saying goodbye to him. Chinuas control over the English language allows him to use plain and ordinary words but with powerful meanings to leave an impact on the reader. The tone is painful, depressing, and one of melancholy and grief. It shows us the pain of losing a loved one, and the sorrow of war. The poem has no rhyme scheme, and is more like a eulogy or epitaph. This is because; a rhyme scheme may hamper the effect of the poem and the powerful display of emotions. The poem teaches us the most pure and sacred relationship of a mother and child. The poem engenders a feeling of sympathy for the mother and it creates a vivid image of a mother holding on to her son, before he breathes his last. It brings to light the after-effects of war and illuminates the emotional bond between a mother and her child. The poem applies to mankind in general, and elucidates the reality and suffering of war. Chinua Achebe simply reinforces, the dread, horror and dismay of the war scene through the eyes of a mother.
Monday, February 24, 2020
Strategic Human Resource Management - Assignment Example HRM assumes strategic importance when there is a need for employee commitment to strategic goals concerning efficiency, quality and innovation. A key policy goal underpinning HRM practice is to "maximize organizational integration" (Guest, 1988), where strategic integration refers to "the ability of the organization to integrate HRM issues into its strategic plans" (Guest, 1989). This paper is meant to contribute to the debate by understanding the genesis, concept, approaches and models of SHRM. The paper takes an analytical approach where emphasis is put on the various models of SHRM and its applicability. American firms in the early 1980s had to face stiff competition from foreign companies, who began to export their products to the USA at lower prices than American companies could offer. The cost advantage stemmed from lower labour costs and made it nearly impossible for American companies to survive. They had to look for more efficient and effective ways to use the resources available to them and stay afloat. The ensuing effort gave rise to the concept of Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM). ... It covers macro-organizational concerns relating to structure and culture, organizational effectiveness and performance, matching resources to future business requirements, and the management of change (Hales, 1994). According to Miller (1989), "SHRM encompasses those decisions and actions which concern the management of employees at all levels in the business and which redirect towards creating and sustaining competitive advantage." Wright and Snell (1991) have suggested that in a business, SHRM deals with "those HR activities used to support the firm's competitive strategy." Another way of looking at SHRM is "the pattern of HR deployments and activities intended to enable an organization to achieve its goals" (Wright and McMahan, 1992). Truss and Gratton (1994) define SHRM as "the linking of HRM with strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop organizational cultures that foster innovation and flexibility." Ghoshal and Bartlett (1997) see SHRM as a radical new approach to organization, management and employee relations and indeed to the relationship between firms and their host societies and to each other. They advocate a strategy towards HR in which employees are developed and made employable and this keeps the employer honest. Differences between Business Strategy and SHRM Business strategy is commonly understood as the long term planning by a firm to link its external environment with the internal capabilities so that a unique position can be attained in the market and firm's value can be improved. Business strategies can be formulated in line with any of the internal factors of an organisation that best utilises its external opportunities. Unlike conventional
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Reflections in the Facebook Mirror (Ball), In Defense of Masks (Gergen) - Essay Example ple to reveal their personalities through their decryptions regarding their political and religious views for example (Lee, New York Times 26 June 2010). Gergen asserts that although Polonius has good intentions, and that his advice falls under societyÃ¢â¬â¢s accepted religious and moral code of behavior, his intentions are based on bad psychology (Gergen p.172). Kenneth Gergen disputes classical psychology that human beings are capable of relying on one basic form of self to which they can remain truthful to. He alludes to ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet play. In the play, Polonius advises his son Laertes, to remain true to himself and as a result, his son would not be in crisis with other people There have been a wide range of opinions on the use of masks in the social context, with others impressed while others are irritated by the notion. Erik Erikson, a prominent father of thinking in psychology, was of the opinion that human beings are imposed on masks by the society, which results in them feeling alienated and depressed. Erik Erikson suggests that as grownups, people are phased with challenges throughout the 8 stages of life-trust mistrust, autonomy v shame and doubt, initiative v guilt, industry v inferiority, role confusion v ego/identity, intimacy v isolation, self-absorption v generativity, integrity v despair. For example, during the intimacy v isolation stage, parents begin to put pressure on their children to get married and some people enter marriages out of obligation or to confer to the social norms of society (mask) and they experience feelings of depression and alienation as a result. He is critical of the above criteria citing the fact that human beings are usually unable to develop a coherent sense of identity and those that try to do so, invariably develop in most instances, adverse emotional effects. Gergen together with the help of his colleagues, attempted to challenge this belief by conducting a series of studies with the purpose of discovering
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Theories of development are important Essay A theorist is a person who develops or believes an idea in which to explain something, including what, how and why. Theories are development through observations, analysing and experiments. Theories of development are important because they help us to understand childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour, to help us understand the sequence that children and young people develop. Theorists- influencing current practice. Cognitive development. A Swiss biologist and psychologist jean piaget (1896-1980) is renowned for constructing a highly influential model of child development and learning. He suggested that children develop cognitive skills through mental Ã¢â¬Å"mapsÃ¢â¬ , schemes and network concepts for understanding and responding to physical experiences within his or hers environment. Piagets theory identifies four developments stages these four stages are, sensorimotor stage 0-2 years, preoperational stage 2-7 years, concrete operations 7-11 years, formal operations 11-15 years. Educators must plan activities that are developmentally appropriate according to the curriculum which expands the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s logical and conceptual growth. Another theorist that supports cognitive development is Vygotsky. He believes that children learn and understand through others around them, such as friends and family. He believed that children need challenges and teaching experiences set for them to help them develop in all areas and to help them to reach their full potential. Psychoanalytical development. Sigmund freud (1856-1939) another theorist believed that there are 3 parts to each child and young personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality. He believed that there are; the ID, the ego and the super ego. He believed that these 3 parts arenÃ¢â¬â¢t always there from when the child is born but develop with the child as they grow. He said that they are different through certain factors and behaviour between each different child, Humanist. Abraham maslow (1908-1970) looked at peoples motivation in the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s. He believed that people needed to meet their fundamental needs before they could meet their potential or self-actualisation. He believed that if they were not met then they would become a deficiency in the person. This links to practice because we need to meet the needs of the children for, warmth, care, hunger and environment that they are providing and what they do to meet the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. Social learning. Social learning theorists believe that we learn through observing others. Albert bandura born 1925 believes that we learn through Ã¢â¬ËimitationÃ¢â¬â¢. Eric Erikson (1902-1994) believed that a child and a young personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality will change throughout their life, due to social development and experiences. This links to practice as nursery practitioners are told to be good role models to the children. This is because they observe us and Ã¢â¬ËcopyÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËimitateÃ¢â¬â¢ actions that we may make. Operant conditioning. The theory of operant conditioning is based on learning from the consequences or reinforcement due to a type of behaviour. B.F skinner (1904-1990) is recognised as a key figure for developing the behaviourist approach to learning and developing the theory for operant conditioning. He believed that we learn through our experiences in the environment and the consequences to our behaviour. Skinner separated the sequence of actions into three groups; 1; positive reinforces 2; negative reinforces 3; punishers. The positive reinforcers are what make us repeat actions or behaviour when we get something we desire. Skinner suggested that the positive reinforcement was the most effective way of encouraging new learning, such as getting attention from adults, receiving praise and receiving rewards. The negative reinforcers is a behaviour that also makes us repeat actions or behaviour, but not in a bad way but in a way to stop something bad happening from something good. For example children may learn to hold onto the stair rail when walking down the stairs to steady them self rather than feeling the need to sit on their bottom and bump down them. The Ã¢â¬ËpunisherÃ¢â¬â¢ is what is going to stop people from repeating behaviour, such as checking the temperature of the bath water before getting in it, after burning yourself because you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t check. Skinner also researched unexpected positive reinforcers. This is when children show negative behaviour to receive attention from adults. He proved that showing more frequent positive reinforcement was the most thriving way to help children learn about acceptable behaviour. This links to practice because we reward and praise children for showing positive behaviour. Nursery practitioners often say Ã¢â¬Ëwell doneÃ¢â¬â¢ to children as a way of praising them for showing positive behaviour than their negative behaviour. We also try to focus more on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s positive behaviour rather than their negative behaviour, this is because they eventually learn that their good behaviour is more noticed and praised than their bad behaviour. This proves skinners theory. Behaviourist. The behaviourist theories suggest that learning is influenced by rewards, punishments and environmental factors. Ã¢â¬ËconditioningÃ¢â¬â¢ is often used by behaviourists because we learn in a certain way due to past experiences that teach us not to do something or to do something. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a physiologist who was studying dogs. Whilst doing this he recognised that the dogs started to salivate before their food had been put down for them. He came to the conclusion that they were doing this because they learnt to associate the arrival of the food with other things such as, the sound of footsteps and the bowls or buckets. He did and experiment to look at this more closely. He used a bell because dogs do not salivate when hearing a bell. The dogs eventually begun to associate the bell with been fed. He then rang the bell constantly and eventually the dogs begin to stop salivating and finally did not react to the sound of the bell. Behaviourists use the term extinction when this happens. John b.watson (1878-1958 Took up pavlovs work and demonstrated that children and adults can be classically conditioned. In an experiment he created a phobia of rats in a little boy known as little Albert. In our practice we do not experiment or use classical conditioning, although we may recognise it among the children for example, children may become excited when they see bowls or a tray been brought into the room, they may associate this with food being given to them after this happens. Another example would be that at the end of the day all the children put their coats on they then may anticipate home time because they associate putting their coats on with their parents arriving to take them home. It is also useful to remember that classical conditioning can relate to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s phobias. Social pedagogy. Social pedagogy is the holistic and thoughtful way of working. The aim of this is to improve the life chances and social outcomes of babies and children, therefore we must work with each other as well as the children to find the best possible way of improving these outcomes. The theories of development that have been shown help childcare workers put together framework and education for the children. It also helps us to understand why babies, children and young people do things the way they do. Conclusion. This shows that theorists have helped us come to conclusions for why we do things the way we do as well as how we learn through our experiences. It also helps to understand these theories so that we can provide better care and knowledge in the childcare setting. Task c. introduction pack for a new staff member. At the mother goose pre-school we monitor each childÃ¢â¬â¢s development we do this by using the learning journey. In the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning journey we have Ã¢â¬Å"early learning goalsÃ¢â¬ for each specific age group, to give us guidelines or the Ã¢â¬Å"normÃ¢â¬ development for each stage of their time at the setting. We also carry out observations on the children to show which stage they are at, at the time on the early learning goals. Before any observations take place on the children, permission must be given from the parent/carer, this is also helpful as we can share findings with the childÃ¢â¬â¢s parent/carer and they can share findings with ourselves. If we were to do observations on a child without consent from their parent/carer then they may feel angry and upset as they may not understand that this is normal practice and help us to help the children. Assessment methods. Here are two examples of assessment methods we use to monitor a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development; checklist/tick chart and a free description with a snap shot picture. A checklist and tick chart observation is a chart with particular activities written on and the child is observed to see if they can reach the milestones set according to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s age. These observations are usually taken place when structured activities are set up for the children to do and are based over a longer period of time, but are taken place less frequently to show the progress in the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development. The advantage of using this observation is that you can observe more than one child at a time and they are quick and easy to use. The disadvantage of this is that observing at different times may produce different results and that it only shows what the child can and cannot do, not how confident and happy they are to attempt tasks and join in. A free description with a snap shot picture is to show skills that children show or are seen doing. A description of what you see is written into a small observation sheet and put the childÃ¢â¬â¢s learning journey next to the picture of them doing so. These observations are used frequently to show what milestones the child is at for their age group. The observation has the advantage of been able to use it frequently and no preparation is needed. Although the advantage is that different observers pick up on different things that children do and it can be hard sometimes to find the right words to use to describe what you are seeing. Examples of why sometimes child/young persons development does not follow the expected pattern. Children develop at different stages for example, a baby of 12 months may be walking with support but a baby of 10 months may be walking unaided. Some children just happen to develop quicker or slower than others, but for some babies and children there are reasons why their development does not follow the expected patterns. Premature birth can have an effect on development, such as sitting up unaided, crawling, standing and walking. Learning difficulties can also have an impact on development, some children may pick up writing and reading easier than with a learning difficulty, but help is available such as special support and multi-agency approaches. Another reason why development may be delayed could be disability for example, a baby that has a disability with their legs may not be able to walk until they are 2 or 3 where as the expected age is roughly 1 years old. Impact by disability. Disability can impact and effect development as it can prevent children and young people from completing tasks. Although most activities can be adapted to suit children and young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. Intervention. Intervention can be done to promote positive outcomes for the child or young person where development is not following the expected pattern. Specialist support can be used in the preschool to support children with learning difficulties or disabilities. They can arrange meetings to come and see the child to observe them and give the childÃ¢â¬â¢s key worker activities and goals for the child to meet. Multi agency approaches can also take place to help babies, children and young people to meet the expected pattern of development. Another intervention could be supported play by adapting the activities to support the child or young person to reach the milestones for their age group. Task d . Early identification. Early identification of speech, language or communication delay is important for a childs well-being because it can affect their development. The sooner it is picked up on the sooner it can be amended therefore the child will not miss out on educational activities and lessons which would otherwise potentially hold them further back. Potential risks. Any delays in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, language and communication could result in a lack of development in the future. They may not be able to develop their skills further for example, if a child cannot speak then communication will also become a problem. This is why it is important to identify these delays early. If a child cannot speak then their development will slow down as they cannot further their skills through others around them. This can therefore cause the problem to become greater if it is left to long. Importance of early identification and potential risks of late recognition. It is very important that early identification to speech, language and communication as it can affect children and young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s further development and expanding skills. If it is picked up on early enough then help can be given to the child to either overcome the issue or to give extra support to them to help them develop further. If it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t picked up on early enough then the child could fall behind in development and education. When a child falls behind it can sometimes be difficult for them to catch up although there are organisations to give extra support to the child. Multi-agency team. There are many organisations that can help support a child or young personÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, language and communication. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s GP (general practitioner) can refer the child to a speech therapist which will help their speech and communication. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s health visitor can also help with the childÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, language and communication. How when and why. A multi-agency team would be brought in to support a child when a speech, language or communication delay takes place. The manager would have a meeting with the childÃ¢â¬â¢s parent/carer to discuss the issue and then they would discuss the best possible option for the child. If they decide that a multi-agency team is to be contacted then a meeting would be arranged with the team to examine how the child can be helped. They then will arrange with the team to examine how the child can be helped. They then will arrange the times and dates that they can come and visit the child either at the childcare setting or at home. Play opportunities. There are many types of play opportunities that can be put into place to help support a childÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, language and communication. Role play is one of the most important parts of play for children, it covers physical activity as well as allowing the child to communicate, be creative, be independent and build self-confidence. Another play opportunity could be music and movement activities which include singing, dancing and nursery rhymes. The children can be independent and make their own choices to join in. this allows children to communicate with each other and to sing along to the songs and rhymes. Reading stories are vital in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. By reading and listening, children pick up new words and meanings which allow their knowledge to expand. If a child has a difficulty in communicating or in their speech then books can be very useful for developing their speech and communication. Show and tell is another way of supporting a childÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, language and communication. It allows the children to listen to others and to communicate if they wish to by asking questions about the show and tell that is shown, which can expand their word dictionary by using new words. All of this concludes that noticing a delay in a speech, language or communication development is important to prevent further delay in other areas of development.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The Meaning of Smoke Sometimes people feel that things are better left unsaid. Such is the case in Chris Avellone's, smoke, which tells the story of two friends who have a good relationship until one speaks the truth that both had been hiding. The smoke in the essay can be looked at as a veil that is concealing the true feelings of the two characters. The setting, which is in a smoke filled bar, can be looked at as a secret hide away that the two friends go to. It is when Kyle starts to bring what is really going on that the conflict starts. When the story starts, the two friends are at a bar playing darts and drinking beer. When Kyle start smoking a cigarette it is then that Dave starts to open up and let the audience know that the two friends have not seen each other in a while. He also starts to describe his friend physically paying special attention to his eyes. Throughout the story Kyle is very vague when answering Dave's questions about his new relationship. Finally he asks his friend if his girl knows about what was going on between the two of them. Dave tries a first to shrug the conversation off but it is at this point that smoke the cigarette is giving off is starting to make sense. "Smoke curled from his nostrils out onto the table, like some kinda dragon" (Avellone, 3). Throughout the entire story the smoke seemed to make Dave feel more comfortable. It seemed as if the presence of the smoke made him telling the story and him even being around Kyle okay. With the smoke curling from his friends nose the reader is able to get a picture that the smoke is starting to clear. It is only when the smoke seems to be clearing in his eyes, revealing both his and Kyle's true feelings that he started to get uneasy. At this point he attacks his friend and calls him all kinds of vulgar names. He says that he cannot see much because of the smoke and that at that point, "Kyle just faded out into the smoke in Shoop's" (Avellone, 3). We can see here that he knows he has lost his friend to the smoke, which is a representation of his repressed feelings. From his descriptions of Kyle as well as his annoyance at the relationship he is in, the reader knows that Dave is in love with his friend, but the smoke made it all right because no one could really see what was really going on.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Death of a Salesman is a play written by Arthur Miller. Basically, Miller was not a very prolific writer and Death of a Salesman had been his most famous work. At a certain point, this particular play could be regarded as a tragedy although not in the normal sense. What I mean when I said Ã¢â¬Ëtragedy though not in the normal senseÃ¢â¬ is that usually we associate tragedy from a person with a very high status who in the end had been faced with many problems which led to his failure. However, such had not been the case with this particular play since from the beginning Willy Loman really never had anything good. The brilliance within this play lies with the fact that Miller had been able to portray a certain sense on his audience that tragedy is not for the rich or for the better-off personÃ¢â¬â¢s alone. Rather, tragedy is a part of our everyday life and thus it could happen to anyone of us. He had been able to portray that particular part by making the play revolve most on Willy Loman. As a matter of fact, Loman is almost the same as that of being a Ã¢â¬Ëlow manÃ¢â¬â¢. The play made use of interplay of two time frames basically that of the past and the present. The protagonist in this story is Willy Loman whose occupation is that of a businessman. Willy had been one of the victims of the so-called American dream and he love competitions. All throughout the play phrases such as Ã¢â¬Ëwell-likedÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢m going to lose weightÃ¢â¬â¢ and the like could be found, and they are repeated numerous time. One may wonder what those repetitions mean. Basically, the significance behind those repetitions lies on the fact that Willy believe that it is the outer appearance which would bring you success and not oneÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence per se. For Willy academic performance is of no significance, rather it is being admired and well-liked that really matters. This can be seen from the scenes wherein he often reiterated that Charley and Bernard are both Ã¢â¬ËlikedÃ¢â¬â¢ but not Ã¢â¬Ëwell-likedÃ¢â¬â¢. All throughout the play Willy dreamed of being a very popular salesman so that when he dies people all throughout the world would come to pay their respect to him. The reason why he had not been a successful man may lie on the fact that what he tried to sell had not been his goods, rather it was his character. Dave Salesman had been WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s role model and he greatly idolizes the man to the point that he wanted his death to be the same as that of Singleman. Miller showed his genius by naming his characters Ã¢â¬Å"SinglemanÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"LomanÃ¢â¬ since there is a great allegory between the two. Miller named the pleasant salesman as Singleman mainly because he wanted his audience to think of Dave as a single man who had never been committed to anyone and who had never shared his life with his family. In contrast, Loman is almost the same as that of Ã¢â¬Å"low manÃ¢â¬ which could possibly mean a man with a very low sense of morality and the like. Thus, since Singleman is LomanÃ¢â¬â¢s hero it greatly shows the contrast between the two and it also showed WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s weird opinion of what success is like. The death of a salesman talks not only of the literal death of Willy who as the story goes committed suicide since it is the only alternative he sees in order to secure his dreams (which re left for his sons to continue), rather the story also talked about the death of WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s dream. As mentioned earlier, Willy believes that success lies within being well-liked and being popular. Willy said Charley is not very much well-liked and yet as was seen on the play Charley is very much successful as compared to Willy. One of the main themes of the story is Ã¢â¬Å"the American dreamÃ¢â¬ . Based on WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding, what constitutes an Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ is being well-liked and being attractive which in turn would result in success. However, his bizarre opinion of what success is like led to his own downfall. This blind belief led tom psychological decline which in turn made him daydream a lot. All throughout the scene thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a constant drift from past to present which often time confuses the audience on which timeframe the casts of the story is in at the moment. However, the use of the two timeframes gave Miller an opportunity to compare and to contrast WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s dream and reality. The shift of one timeframe to another also allowed Miller to forbid his audience to have a permanent opinion of his characters since it allowed him to show the characters in the story in pathetic and wicked light alike. However, as Willy experienced a psychological decline the boundary between the past and the present are no longer define and thus both existed in a parallel ground. When Biff informed Willy of his interview with Bill Oliver Willy advised him to demand for a high amount of salary from Oliver claiming that if his son starts big then he would also end big. He also made it a point to impress Oliver with BiffÃ¢â¬â¢s personality. This particular scene showed how very unrealistic Willy is. It also contradicted the belief that everyone should start small and work little by little up the corporate ladder since Willy believes that they could all start big since they are a Loman. Thus, this particular advice of Willy to his son proved to be very contradictory. Also, Willy himself did not follow his own advice with his interview with Howard. Whereas he advised his son to ask Oliver for a large amount, he himself did not do that with his interview. Rather, he begged Howard to station him in New York since he can no longer deal with too much traveling. He even said that he is willing to accept a moderate salary. This also showed a great contradiction with WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s advice and his own deed. In analyzing stage directions made for Happy Ã¢â¬Å"Sexuality is like a visible color for himÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ we could see that Americans wrote plays which show step by step how a character is supposed to act. It also spells their characters age, characteristic and the like. They are very strict in this manner in that they spell everything out down to the smallest detail. In the play, one could see that Willy is a victim of his society, particularly that of capitalism. This can clearly be shown from his interview with Howard, the son of his boss. Since he could no longer produce money, Howard fired him out of his job. All throughout the story we can see WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s strong hold on his American dream which served him nothing but misery in the end, and now that he is old and no longer productive he had been thrown out of his job. Another significant part on the movie is the fact that the play is set in post World War II New York City, yet WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s flashbacks date back to 1928. The reason behind this is that it was in year 1928 that Willy had been able to sell big time and it was also the year that he bought his Chevrolet. Thus, seeing from this point of view one could clearly justify why most of WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s flashbacks happened in that particular year. It was in year 1928 that Willy had been most productive and it may lead him to believe that it is the start of his great career. Biff Loman had been a kleptomaniac on the story. This particular attitude may be attributed to the fact that his father did not tell him that stealing is bad. In one particular act on the play Biff told his father that he stole a football yet Willy did not reprimand his son. Rather he said that as long as Biff is well-liked he would be very successful one day. His fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s belief flowed into him believing that people would easily forgive him for stealing things as long as he is popular. One of the reasons why Biff had been constantly stealing things is the fact that he wanted to please his family. Most of all Biff wanted to impress his father by showing him that he could get anything he wants at whatever cost. What Charley meant when he said in WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s requiem that Willy is a Ã¢â¬Å"happy man with a batch of cementÃ¢â¬ (Miller, Williams, & Paul, 1984) is the fact that Willy had not been doing the things he really want or the things that he is most good at. Willy is not really cut out to be a businessman to begin with rather he could have been better off had he been a gym owner or a sportÃ¢â¬â¢s coach. Willy had also been a man who enjoys doing things with his hands (he loves planting) and thus it makes the audiences wonder on whether Willy had been better off had he chosen a more appropriate career for himself. It also pointed out how Willy had never been true to himself. He did not succeed in any way because he is in constant competition and he had always been after commercial success although he is not really good with that particular thing. Commercial success overshadowed personal success and happiness which in turn led to a greater tragedy. Everything about Willy had been wrong from the start. He had the wrong beliefs as well as the wrong dream. He loves gardening and he is good with working with his hands thus if he had chosen another path (probably that of farming) then he may have had a better chance with success. The Parent/Child relationship had been present all throughout the play. Miller clearly showed how a parentÃ¢â¬â¢s belief and way of rearing up their children could affect their child all throughout their life. This can be seen clearly with the way Willy passed on his dreams and beliefs to his two sons. WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong beliefs had been the primary source why his sons also failed in their lives. In one of the scenes in the play wherein Biff and Willy had been arguing Willy accused his son of ruining his life just to spite him however Biff rebutted him by saying that Willy filled him with hot air which led to his inability of getting any permanent job because he cannot bear taking orders from other people. I think BiffÃ¢â¬â¢s claim is more accurate as compared to his father. Of course, it is true that BiffÃ¢â¬â¢s disappointment with his father made him lose interest in pursuing his studies however, the main reason why Biff could not really find a good work for himself is because his father made him believe in wrong beliefs particularly that he is far superior to other people. To conclude, the play had been rather interesting because of its clear way of portraying the effects of capitalism. It also showed how wrong beliefs particularly that of beliefs regarding American Dream could lead to the distraction of people. The play also portrayed how the parent/child relationship could affect an individual thus all in all the play is exceptional save for the fact that there are times that the play is rather vague because of the constant interplay between past and present. Reference: Miller, A. , Williams, L. M. , & Paul, K. (1984). Death of a Salesman: BarronÃ¢â¬â¢s Educational Series.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Blindness is only a disability to those that are mentally eyeless. Shakespeare being a man of keen mental sight, he has had the ability to portray mental blindness in several of his plays. Being one of the best writers, he is actively able to capture the four elements of a well-made play being peripetiea, denouement, timely entrances and exits and incredibly gripping scene entrances and conclusions. Having written 38 plays with two original plots, Shakespeare expresses his themes through passionate romance, sorrow filled tragedy, inviting history and hilarious comedy. One of his most famous comedies is the play called, Much Ado About Nothing. In this play the comedic aspects greatly emphasize the important theme of self-knowledge.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦By this hand I love thee.Ã¢â¬ They continues to love each other by having the desire to get married and following through with this desire. Also, in matters not concerning directly to them they also demonstrate self-knowled ge. When Hero is shammed at her own wedding, Beatrice and Benedict are the only two who seem to believe that she has been wronged. Benedict even verbalizes this when he states while talking with Beatrice, Ã¢â¬Å"Surely I do believe your fair cousin is wronged.Ã¢â¬ In continuation, both characters are allowed to be made aware of HeroÃ¢â¬â¢s false death along with knowing that ClaudioÃ¢â¬â¢s second bride is Hero herself for they were a part of the conspiracy. These are examples of self-knowledge because they are able to perceive reality for what it truly is rather than at face value. In contrast to Beatrice and Benedict, characters Claudio and Don Pedro do not possess self-knowledge. Because of this they are unable to see the things for what they are. By definition, vanity is excessive pride in your own character or abilities. Due to Claudio and Don PedroÃ¢â¬â¢s vanity, they are unable to acquire self-knowledge. These men demonstrate their vanity in multiple ways. One way the y do this is by refusing to admit to having any flaws. They prove this when they accuse, judge, condemn and even punish Hero, running her good name. The ironic part is that the crime in which she is accused of is a falsity in which was set up to deceive Claudio andShow MoreRelated Much Ado About Nothing - The Importance Of Noting Essay1155 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Discuss The Importance Of Noting In Much Ado About Nothing Noting, or observing, is central to many of the ideas in Much Ado About Nothing. The word nothing was pronounced as noting in Elizabethan times, and it seems reasonable to presume that the pun was intended by Shakespeare to signal the importance of observation, spying and eavesdropping in the play. As a plot device, these occurrences propel the action and create humour and tension. The perils of noting incorrectly are portrayed and thisRead MoreMuch Ado About Nothing - the Importance of Noting1230 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagescenterbDiscuss The Importance Of Noting In Much Ado About Nothing/b/center br brNoting, or observing, is central to many of the ideas in Much Ado About Nothing. The word nothing was pronounced as noting in Elizabethan times, and it seems reasonable to presume that the pun was intended by Shakespeare to signal the importance of observation, spying and eavesdropping in the play. As a plot device, these occurrences propel the action and create humour and tension. 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